Google has set some rules that every webmaster should follow in order to make their online business website compete for rankings. And since everyone is doing the same thing it's hard to beat the competition.
This is where black hat SEO comes into play it simply as you said techniques and tactics to hack exploit Google search engine optimization and finding weaknesses and flaws.
Normal SEO is called white hat
More or less ethical is called gray hat
And the one that can get you banned from Google is called black hat
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